Pregnenolone (P5) fully prevents testicular atrophy due to steroid (ab)use or high estrogen

I often get emails from bodybuilders, athletes and others who have used or currently use steroids and want to either protect themselves while using those steroids or want to recover after long-term usage. It is well-known that most performance enhancing steroids, including plain testosterone (T) or DHT, suppress gonadal function through a negative feedback mechanism … Read more Pregnenolone (P5) fully prevents testicular atrophy due to steroid (ab)use or high estrogen

Estrogen and cortisol, not androgens, suppress immunity

There is a very famous theory in reproductive biology still considered the dominant one in its field. Namely, males have to accept a trade-off between androgen levels and immunity. It is known as the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH). Higher androgen levels, the theory goes, allow the male to (physically) outcompete other males around him for … Read more Estrogen and cortisol, not androgens, suppress immunity